Difference between revisions of "Systems Engineering and Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering"

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'''''Lead Author:''''' ''Ulrich Lenk''
 
'''''Lead Author:''''' ''Ulrich Lenk''
 
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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geospatial applications and infrastructures are widely used and widely integrated into other systems. Among the most well-known such systems are those based on the Global Navigation System (GPS) and other  Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). They have enabled such diverse applications as automobile navigation systems, smartphones that location-stamp photographs, and military weapon systems that target enemy locations. According to Hahmann and Burghardt (2013), about 80% of all data have a spatial reference; i.e. the data can be related to a physical coordinate. Systems and their constituents reside in or operate in space and often need to know where they or their parts, constituents, etc. are; where their mobile components go; or where objects observed by the system are. In other words (Longley et al. 2015): “Almost everything that happens, happens somewhere. Knowing where something happens can be critically important.” Extending this observation, potentially the system(s) and their associated constituents require synchronization of their activities and actions which is often achieved by triggering actions via time stamps; for this purpose, systems need to be time-wise synchronized to a certain extent or accuracy. The Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering (GGE) Knowledge Area provides a broad introduction into this overall topic in order to make the reader aware where relevant technologies are actually used in systems. It reflects the abundant uses and applications and even critical dependencies of geodetic and geospatial technologies in systems, such as GNSS & GPS; GIS; spatial reference systems; processing, analysis and visualization of geospatial data. It briefly analyzes to what extent the Systems Engineering Specialty Activities listed in the INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook (2015) and modeling and simulation may be supported by related subject matter expertise. As a consequence it concludes that GGE activities could be considered as dedicated Specialty Engineering activities themselves within Systems Engineering.
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{{Term|Geographic Information System (glossary)|Geographic Information Systems (GIS)}} and geospatial applications and {{Term|Infrastructure (glossary)|infrastructures}} are widely used and widely integrated into other {{Term|System (glossary)|systems}}. Among the most well-known such {{Term|System (glossary)|systems}} are those based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other  Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). They have enabled such diverse applications as automobile navigation systems, smartphones that location-stamp photographs, and military weapon systems that target enemy locations. According to Hahmann and Burghardt (2013), about 80% of all data have a {{Term|Spatial Reference(glossary)|spatial reference}}; i.e. the data can be related to a physical coordinate in a {{Term|Spatial Reference System (glossary)|spatial reference system}}, or identified by a {{Term|Geographic Identifier (glossary)|geographic identifier}}. {{Term|System (glossary)|Systems}} and their constituents reside in or operate in space and often need to know where they or their parts, constituents, etc. are; where their mobile components go; or where objects observed by the system are. In other words (Longley et al. 2015): “Almost everything that happens, happens somewhere. Knowing where something happens can be critically important.” Extending this observation, potentially the system(s) and their associated constituents require synchronization of their activities and actions which is often achieved by triggering actions via time stamps; for this purpose, systems need to be time-wise synchronized to a certain extent or accuracy. The Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering (GGE) Knowledge Area provides a broad introduction into this overall topic in order to make the reader aware where relevant technologies are actually used in {{Term|System (glossary)|systems}}. It reflects the abundant uses and applications and even critical dependencies of geodetic and geospatial technologies in systems, such as GNSS & GPS ({{Term|Satellite Positioning System (glossary)|satellite positioning systems}}); {{Term|Geographic Information System (glossary)|GIS}}; {{Term|Spatial Reference System (glossary)|spatial reference systems}}; processing, analysis and visualization ({{Term|Portrayal (glossary)|portrayal}}) of geographic data. It briefly analyzes to what extent the {{Term|Systems Engineering (glossary)|Systems Engineering}} {{Term|Specialty Engineering (glossary)|Specialty Activities}} listed in the INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook (2015) and modeling and {{Term|Simulation (glossary)|simulation}} may be supported by related subject matter expertise. As a consequence it concludes that GGE activities could be considered as dedicated {{Term|Specialty Engineering (glossary)|Specialty Engineering}} activities themselves within {{Term|Systems Engineering (glossary)|Systems Engineering}}.
  
 
==Topics==
 
==Topics==
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==References==
 
==References==
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===Works Cited===
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Hahmann, S. and D. Burghardt. 2013. How much information is geospatially referenced? Networks and cognition. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 27(6):1171-1189. DOI: 10.1080/13658816.2012.743664.
  
 
===Primary References===
 
===Primary References===
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Longley, P.A., M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire, and D.W. Rhind. 2015. ''[[Geographic Information Science and Systems]]'', (4th edition). New York, Chichester, Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
Longley, P.A., M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire, and D.W. Rhind. 2015. ''[[Geographic Information Science and Systems]]'', (4th edition). New York, Chichester, Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
===Works Cited===
 
Hahmann, S. and D. Burghardt. 2013. ''[[How much information is geospatially referenced? Networks and cognition. ]]'' International Journal of Geographical Information Science 27(6):1171-1189. DOI: 10.1080/13658816.2012.743664.
 
  
 
===Additional References===
 
===Additional References===
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<center>[[Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering|< Previous Article]] | [[Related Disciplines|Parent Article]] | [[Systems Engineering and Quality Attributes|Next Article >]]</center>
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<center>[[Systems Engineering and Environmental Engineering|< Previous Article]] | [[Related Disciplines|Parent Article]] | [[Overview of Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering|Next Article >]]</center>
  
<center>'''SEBoK v. 2.3, released 30 October 2020'''</center>
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<center>'''SEBoK v. 2.4, released 19 May 2021'''</center>
  
 
[[Category:Part 6]]
 
[[Category:Part 6]]
 
[[Category:Knowledge Area]]
 
[[Category:Knowledge Area]]
 
[[Category:Systems Engineering and Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering]]
 
[[Category:Systems Engineering and Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering]]

Revision as of 20:44, 19 May 2021


Lead Author: Ulrich Lenk


Geographic Information Systems (GIS)Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geospatial applications and infrastructuresinfrastructures are widely used and widely integrated into other systemssystems. Among the most well-known such systemssystems are those based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). They have enabled such diverse applications as automobile navigation systems, smartphones that location-stamp photographs, and military weapon systems that target enemy locations. According to Hahmann and Burghardt (2013), about 80% of all data have a spatial referencespatial reference; i.e. the data can be related to a physical coordinate in a spatial reference systemspatial reference system, or identified by a geographic identifiergeographic identifier. SystemsSystems and their constituents reside in or operate in space and often need to know where they or their parts, constituents, etc. are; where their mobile components go; or where objects observed by the system are. In other words (Longley et al. 2015): “Almost everything that happens, happens somewhere. Knowing where something happens can be critically important.” Extending this observation, potentially the system(s) and their associated constituents require synchronization of their activities and actions which is often achieved by triggering actions via time stamps; for this purpose, systems need to be time-wise synchronized to a certain extent or accuracy. The Geospatial/Geodetic Engineering (GGE) Knowledge Area provides a broad introduction into this overall topic in order to make the reader aware where relevant technologies are actually used in systemssystems. It reflects the abundant uses and applications and even critical dependencies of geodetic and geospatial technologies in systems, such as GNSS & GPS (satellite positioning systemssatellite positioning systems); GISGIS; spatial reference systemsspatial reference systems; processing, analysis and visualization (portrayalportrayal) of geographic data. It briefly analyzes to what extent the Systems EngineeringSystems Engineering Specialty ActivitiesSpecialty Activities listed in the INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook (2015) and modeling and simulationsimulation may be supported by related subject matter expertise. As a consequence it concludes that GGE activities could be considered as dedicated Specialty EngineeringSpecialty Engineering activities themselves within Systems EngineeringSystems Engineering.

Topics

This Knowledge Area includes two topic articles:

References

Works Cited

Hahmann, S. and D. Burghardt. 2013. How much information is geospatially referenced? Networks and cognition. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 27(6):1171-1189. DOI: 10.1080/13658816.2012.743664.

Primary References

INCOSE. 2015. Systems Engineering Handbook: A Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities, (4th edition). San Diego, CA, USA: International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), INCOSE-TP-2003-002-04.

Longley, P.A., M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire, and D.W. Rhind. 2015. Geographic Information Science and Systems, (4th edition). New York, Chichester, Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Additional References

None.


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